DNA Relationship Standard Deviations

This table shows three different DNA segment length standard deviation ranges for various calculated relationships as they compare to total chromosome lengths. The delta (Δ), as I've defined it here, represents the change between the mean and the median. Large deltas indicate a skewed distribution due to a large number of outliers falling to either side of a normal distribution curve. The variance is also included and indicates how outliers flatten a normal distribution curve. Sigma (σ) is the symbol for standard deviation and is calculated from the average and total values for each relationship. Because the sample sizes are still so small, significant delta and variation can be seen for some relationships. To address the issues of outliers, there are several techniques that can be used to eliminate them from calculations. The first is to toss entries that fall several standard deviations from the average. This assumes that the normal distribution is a symmetrical bell curve. This is a valid assumption, but only when the sample sizes are large. Outliers in small samples skew the results significantly. Another method is to extract the quartile values from the data, determine cutoff values based on their difference and discard those falling outside the lower and upper limits (see table 1). A third method is to measure the variance in the data and when above a threshold, use the median absolute deviation (MAD) instead of the standard deviation. The advantage of the median absolute deviation is that it reduces the effects of outliers when calculating deviation results. This is because when small samples are being used, outliers have significantly more influence on the average than they do the median. Confidence levels are based on these statistical methods and are discussed further in the DNA Relationship Probabilities table. Having summarized these methods, I should note here that I am an engineer - not a statitician - there may be other statistical tools that would better serve both small and large DNA samples.

Collapse Confidence Level
Cluster Relation Gen. Sample Mean Δ Var σ MAD 99.0% 99.9% 100%
2.0 Parent/Child 7 49.86% 0.11% 0.02 0.14 49.49-50.22% 49.40-50.32% 49.11-50.60%
3.0 Sibling 2 41.58% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 41.58-41.58% 41.58-41.58% 41.58-41.58%
3.5 Half Sibling 3 23.64% 2.02% 1.62 1.27 20.36-26.91% 19.45-27.82% 16.86-30.41%
4.0 Aunt/Uncle/Nephew/Niece 6 22.81% 4.40% 9.20 3.03 2.05 17.54-28.08% 16.08-29.54% 11.92-33.71%
4.5 Half Aunt/Uncle/Nephew/Niece 6 11.93% 1.37% 3.87 1.97 1.33 8.51-15.35% 7.56-16.29% 4.85-19.00%
5.0 Great Aunt/Uncle/Nephew/Niece 2 11.33% 0.00% 0.01 0.09 11.09-11.57% 11.02-11.64% 10.83-11.83%
5.0 1st Cousin 2 8.28% 0.00% 0.28 0.53 6.93-9.63% 6.55-10.01% 5.48-11.08%
5.5 Half Great Aunt/Uncle/Nephew/Niece 2 6.44% 0.00% 0.15 0.38 5.46-7.42% 5.18-7.69% 4.41-8.47%
5.5 Half 1st Cousin 13 6.51% 0.31% 0.90 0.95 4.06-8.96% 3.38-9.64% 1.44-11.57%
6.0 1st Cousin 1x Removed 18 6.08% 1.85% 3.21 1.79 1.21 2.97-9.19% 2.10-10.06% 0.00-12.52%
6.5 Half 1st Cousin 1x Removed 20 3.23% 6.65% 0.92 0.96 0.76-5.70% 0.08-6.38% 0.00-8.33%
7.0 1st Cousin 2x Removed 15 2.57% 6.02% 0.55 0.74 0.66-4.48% 0.13-5.01% 0.00-6.53%
7.0 2nd Cousin 33 2.92% 2.74% 1.71 1.31 0.00-6.29% 0.00-7.23% 0.00-9.89%
7.5 Half 1st Cousin 2x Removed 5 0.37% 3.79% 0.01 0.08 0.16-0.59% 0.10-0.65% 0.00-0.81%
7.5 Half 2nd Cousin 15 1.43% 7.20% 0.69 0.83 0.00-3.57% 0.00-4.17% 0.00-5.86%
8.0 1st Cousin 3x Removed 2 1.37% 0.00% 0.92 0.96 0.00-3.84% 0.00-4.53% 0.00-6.49%
8.0 2nd Cousin 1x Removed 93 1.28% 14.31% 0.65 0.80 0.54 0.00-2.67% 0.00-3.06% 0.00-4.17%
8.5 Half 1st Cousin 3x Removed 2 0.34% 0.00% 0.00 0.02 0.28-0.39% 0.26-0.41% 0.22-0.46%
8.5 Half 2nd Cousin 1x Removed 30 0.67% 34.02% 0.31 0.56 0.38 0.00-1.64% 0.00-1.91% 0.00-2.68%
9.0 1st Cousin 4x Removed 2 0.49% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.49-0.49% 0.49-0.49% 0.49-0.49%
9.0 2nd Cousin 2x Removed 60 0.59% 20.15% 0.21 0.46 0.31 0.00-1.40% 0.00-1.62% 0.00-2.25%
9.0 3rd Cousin 99 0.84% 17.60% 0.35 0.59 0.40 0.00-1.86% 0.00-2.14% 0.00-2.95%
9.5 Half 2nd Cousin 2x Removed 10 0.58% 10.47% 0.07 0.26 0.18 0.12-1.04% 0.00-1.17% 0.00-1.53%
9.5 Half 3rd Cousin 12 0.38% 4.26% 0.02 0.13 0.03-0.72% 0.00-0.82% 0.00-1.09%
9.999 Double 3rd Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.99% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.99-0.99% 0.99-0.99% 0.99-0.99%
10.0 1st Cousin 5x Removed 1 0.10% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.10-0.10% 0.10-0.10% 0.10-0.10%
10.0 2nd Cousin 3x Removed 11 0.23% 18.43% 0.01 0.11 0.08 0.04-0.43% 0.00-0.48% 0.00-0.63%
10.0 3rd Cousin 1x Removed 187 0.53% 16.21% 0.11 0.33 0.22 0.00-1.11% 0.00-1.27% 0.00-1.73%
10.5 Half 3rd Cousin 1x Removed 12 0.40% 25.82% 0.05 0.23 0.16 0.00-0.80% 0.00-0.91% 0.00-1.22%
10.94 3rd Cousin 2x Removed 6 3 0.62% 58.13% 0.31 0.56 0.38 0.00-1.59% 0.00-1.86% 0.00-2.63%
10.999 Double 4th Cousin 2 0.26% 0.00% 0.03 0.17 0.00-0.70% 0.00-0.83% 0.00-1.18%
11.0 2nd Cousin 4x Removed 3 0.25% 3.54% 0.01 0.11 0.00-0.53% 0.00-0.61% 0.00-0.84%
11.0 3rd Cousin 2x Removed 57 0.32% 21.95% 0.04 0.19 0.13 0.00-0.65% 0.00-0.74% 0.00-1.00%
11.0 4th Cousin 164 0.36% 21.17% 0.06 0.25 0.17 0.00-0.79% 0.00-0.91% 0.00-1.26%
11.5 Half 3rd Cousin 2x Removed 4 0.31% 5.00% 0.01 0.11 0.03-0.58% 0.00-0.66% 0.00-0.87%
11.5 Half 4th Cousin 25 0.28% 39.26% 0.04 0.21 0.14 0.00-0.65% 0.00-0.75% 0.00-1.04%
11.93 3rd Cousin 3x Removed 7 1 0.27% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.27-0.27% 0.27-0.27% 0.27-0.27%
11.94 4th Cousin 1x Removed 6 17 0.24% 18.93% 0.02 0.13 0.09 0.01-0.47% 0.00-0.53% 0.00-0.72%
11.949 Double 4th Cousin 1x Removed 5 1 0.60% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.60-0.60% 0.60-0.60% 0.60-0.60%
11.999 Double 3rd Cousin 3x Removed 1 0.33% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.33-0.33% 0.33-0.33% 0.33-0.33%
11.999 Double 4th Cousin 1x Removed 10 0.34% 31.94% 0.06 0.24 0.16 0.00-0.76% 0.00-0.88% 0.00-1.21%
12.0 3rd Cousin 3x Removed 18 0.36% 8.02% 0.04 0.20 0.00-0.88% 0.00-1.03% 0.00-1.44%
12.0 4th Cousin 1x Removed 257 0.31% 14.10% 0.04 0.19 0.13 0.00-0.65% 0.00-0.74% 0.00-1.01%
12.499 Half Double 4th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.12% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.12-0.12% 0.12-0.12% 0.12-0.12%
12.5 Half 3rd Cousin 3x Removed 1 0.81% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.81-0.81% 0.81-0.81% 0.81-0.81%
12.5 Half 4th Cousin 1x Removed 20 0.36% 15.53% 0.05 0.23 0.16 0.00-0.76% 0.00-0.87% 0.00-1.19%
12.93 4th Cousin 2x Removed 7 8 0.16% 10.61% 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.10-0.22% 0.09-0.23% 0.04-0.28%
12.93 5th Cousin 7 4 0.38% 3.77% 0.00 0.04 0.27-0.49% 0.25-0.52% 0.16-0.60%
12.939 Double 5th Cousin 6 1 0.53% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.53-0.53% 0.53-0.53% 0.53-0.53%
12.94 4th Cousin 2x Removed 6 2 0.44% 0.00% 0.00 0.03 0.35-0.53% 0.33-0.55% 0.26-0.62%
12.94 5th Cousin 6 21 0.24% 4.89% 0.01 0.12 0.00-0.54% 0.00-0.62% 0.00-0.86%
12.949 Double 4th Cousin 2x Removed 5 1 0.31% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.31-0.31% 0.31-0.31% 0.31-0.31%
12.997 Quadruple 4th Cousin 2x Removed 1 0.36% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.36-0.36% 0.36-0.36% 0.36-0.36%
12.999 Double 4th Cousin 2x Removed 7 0.20% 20.92% 0.01 0.10 0.07 0.03-0.37% 0.00-0.41% 0.00-0.55%
12.999 Double 5th Cousin 26 0.27% 22.00% 0.03 0.18 0.12 0.00-0.58% 0.00-0.67% 0.00-0.92%
13.0 4th Cousin 2x Removed 112 0.27% 7.71% 0.02 0.13 0.00-0.59% 0.00-0.69% 0.00-0.95%
13.0 5th Cousin 213 0.27% 8.86% 0.02 0.16 0.00-0.67% 0.00-0.78% 0.00-1.09%
13.499 Half Double 4th Cousin 2x Removed 1 0.56% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.56-0.56% 0.56-0.56% 0.56-0.56%
13.5 Half 4th Cousin 2x Removed 17 0.32% 10.65% 0.02 0.14 0.09 0.08-0.57% 0.01-0.63% 0.00-0.83%
13.5 Half 5th Cousin 7 0.27% 16.87% 0.02 0.13 0.09 0.05-0.50% 0.00-0.56% 0.00-0.74%
13.929 Double 5th Cousin 1x Removed 7 1 0.17% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.17-0.17% 0.17-0.17% 0.17-0.17%
13.93 5th Cousin 1x Removed 7 3 0.22% 16.67% 0.00 0.06 0.04 0.11-0.32% 0.08-0.35% 0.00-0.44%
13.94 5th Cousin 1x Removed 6 17 0.28% 23.47% 0.02 0.15 0.10 0.02-0.54% 0.00-0.61% 0.00-0.82%
13.997 Quadruple 5th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.14% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.14-0.14% 0.14-0.14% 0.14-0.14%
13.998 Triple 5th Cousin 1x Removed 4 0.33% 8.65% 0.01 0.10 0.07-0.59% 0.00-0.67% 0.00-0.88%
13.999 Double 5th Cousin 1x Removed 31 0.23% 15.51% 0.01 0.12 0.08 0.03-0.44% 0.00-0.49% 0.00-0.66%
14.0 4th Cousin 3x Removed 6 0.30% 19.21% 0.04 0.19 0.13 0.00-0.63% 0.00-0.72% 0.00-0.98%
14.0 5th Cousin 1x Removed 376 0.26% 12.82% 0.02 0.16 0.10 0.00-0.53% 0.00-0.61% 0.00-0.82%
14.44 Half 5th Cousin 1x Removed 6 3 0.12% 0.00% 0.00 0.01 0.08-0.15% 0.08-0.15% 0.05-0.18%
14.499 Half Double 5th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.13% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13%
14.5 Half 4th Cousin 3x Removed 3 0.36% 8.61% 0.01 0.08 0.15-0.57% 0.09-0.63% 0.00-0.80%
14.5 Half 5th Cousin 1x Removed 39 0.26% 10.34% 0.02 0.12 0.08 0.04-0.47% 0.00-0.53% 0.00-0.70%
14.93 6th Cousin 7 5 0.21% 2.67% 0.01 0.08 0.00-0.42% 0.00-0.47% 0.00-0.64%
14.94 5th Cousin 2x Removed 6 1 0.13% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13%
14.94 6th Cousin 6 7 0.39% 6.32% 0.02 0.14 0.03-0.75% 0.00-0.85% 0.00-1.14%
14.95 6th Cousin 5 1 0.71% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.71-0.71% 0.71-0.71% 0.71-0.71%
14.998 Triple 6th Cousin 2 0.26% 0.00% 0.01 0.09 0.02-0.49% 0.00-0.55% 0.00-0.74%
14.999 Double 5th Cousin 2x Removed 2 0.26% 0.00% 0.01 0.08 0.04-0.47% 0.00-0.53% 0.00-0.70%
14.999 Double 6th Cousin 22 0.20% 26.67% 0.01 0.10 0.07 0.02-0.37% 0.00-0.41% 0.00-0.55%
15.0 5th Cousin 2x Removed 22 0.34% 10.01% 0.03 0.16 0.11 0.05-0.62% 0.00-0.70% 0.00-0.93%
15.0 6th Cousin 319 0.23% 13.13% 0.03 0.16 0.11 0.00-0.52% 0.00-0.60% 0.00-0.82%
15.5 Half 5th Cousin 2x Removed 2 0.33% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.33-0.33% 0.33-0.33% 0.33-0.33%
15.5 Half 6th Cousin 44 0.20% 15.76% 0.01 0.10 0.07 0.04-0.37% 0.00-0.42% 0.00-0.55%
15.93 6th Cousin 1x Removed 7 4 0.31% 1.64% 0.01 0.12 0.01-0.61% 0.00-0.69% 0.00-0.93%
15.94 6th Cousin 1x Removed 6 1 0.30% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.30-0.30% 0.30-0.30% 0.30-0.30%
15.949 Double 6th Cousin 1x Removed 5 1 0.14% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.14-0.14% 0.14-0.14% 0.14-0.14%
15.998 Triple 6th Cousin 1x Removed 2 0.34% 0.00% 0.03 0.17 0.00-0.79% 0.00-0.92% 0.00-1.27%
15.999 Double 5th Cousin 3x Removed 1 0.13% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13%
15.999 Double 6th Cousin 1x Removed 12 0.43% 17.16% 0.05 0.23 0.16 0.03-0.84% 0.00-0.95% 0.00-1.27%
16.0 5th Cousin 3x Removed 3 0.21% 6.03% 0.00 0.06 0.04-0.37% 0.00-0.41% 0.00-0.54%
16.0 6th Cousin 1x Removed 77 0.25% 14.58% 0.02 0.12 0.08 0.04-0.46% 0.00-0.52% 0.00-0.69%
16.5 Half 6th Cousin 1x Removed 2 0.22% 0.00% 0.01 0.10 0.00-0.48% 0.00-0.55% 0.00-0.75%
16.919 Double 7th Cousin 8 1 0.49% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.49-0.49% 0.49-0.49% 0.49-0.49%
16.93 7th Cousin 7 1 0.22% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.22-0.22% 0.22-0.22% 0.22-0.22%
16.949 Double 6th Cousin 2x Removed 5 1 0.16% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16%
16.95 7th Cousin 5 1 0.14% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.14-0.14% 0.14-0.14% 0.14-0.14%
16.996 Pentuple 7th Cousin 1 0.25% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.25-0.25% 0.25-0.25% 0.25-0.25%
16.997 Quadruple 7th Cousin 1 0.21% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.21-0.21% 0.21-0.21% 0.21-0.21%
16.998 Triple 6th Cousin 2x Removed 1 0.18% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.18-0.18% 0.18-0.18% 0.18-0.18%
16.998 Triple 7th Cousin 2 0.18% 0.00% 0.00 0.02 0.13-0.23% 0.12-0.24% 0.08-0.28%
16.999 Double 6th Cousin 2x Removed 5 0.21% 9.79% 0.01 0.07 0.02-0.39% 0.00-0.44% 0.00-0.59%
16.999 Double 7th Cousin 2 0.54% 0.00% 0.01 0.09 0.30-0.78% 0.23-0.85% 0.04-1.04%
17.0 6th Cousin 2x Removed 15 0.23% 7.94% 0.01 0.10 0.00-0.49% 0.00-0.57% 0.00-0.77%
17.0 7th Cousin 40 0.23% 8.22% 0.02 0.13 0.00-0.57% 0.00-0.66% 0.00-0.93%
17.499 Half Double 7th Cousin 1 0.16% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16%
17.92 7th Cousin 1x Removed 8 1 0.22% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.22-0.22% 0.22-0.22% 0.22-0.22%
17.996 Pentuple 7th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.13% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13%
17.998 Triple 7th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.20% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.20-0.20% 0.20-0.20% 0.20-0.20%
17.999 Double 6th Cousin 3x Removed 1 0.43% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.43-0.43% 0.43-0.43% 0.43-0.43%
17.999 Double 7th Cousin 1x Removed 2 0.18% 0.00% 0.00 0.01 0.14-0.21% 0.13-0.22% 0.10-0.25%
18.0 6th Cousin 3x Removed 1 0.50% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.50-0.50% 0.50-0.50% 0.50-0.50%
18.0 7th Cousin 1x Removed 35 0.24% 10.42% 0.01 0.11 0.07 0.05-0.43% 0.00-0.48% 0.00-0.63%
18.499 Half Double 7th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.22% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.22-0.22% 0.22-0.22% 0.22-0.22%
18.996 Pentuple 8th Cousin 1 0.13% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13%
18.999 Double 8th Cousin 1 0.10% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.10-0.10% 0.10-0.10% 0.10-0.10%
19.0 7th Cousin 2x Removed 2 0.29% 0.00% 0.01 0.07 0.10-0.47% 0.05-0.53% 0.00-0.67%
19.0 8th Cousin 9 0.16% 6.96% 0.00 0.05 0.04-0.28% 0.01-0.31% 0.00-0.40%
19.92 8th Cousin 1x Removed 8 1 0.16% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16%
19.94 7th Cousin 3x Removed 6 1 0.19% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.19-0.19% 0.19-0.19% 0.19-0.19%
20.0 8th Cousin 1x Removed 11 0.18% 36.37% 0.02 0.13 0.09 0.00-0.41% 0.00-0.47% 0.00-0.65%
20.94 8th Cousin 2x Removed 6 2 0.14% 0.00% 0.00 0.02 0.08-0.20% 0.06-0.21% 0.02-0.26%
20.998 Triple 9th Cousin 1 0.27% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.27-0.27% 0.27-0.27% 0.27-0.27%
21.94 8th Cousin 3x Removed 6 5 0.16% 38.89% 0.01 0.09 0.06 0.00-0.31% 0.00-0.36% 0.00-0.48%
21.94 9th Cousin 1x Removed 6 9 0.19% 1.41% 0.00 0.06 0.03-0.35% 0.00-0.39% 0.00-0.52%
22.0 9th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.49% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.49-0.49% 0.49-0.49% 0.49-0.49%
22.94 9th Cousin 2x Removed 6 11 0.18% 35.81% 0.03 0.16 0.11 0.00-0.46% 0.00-0.54% 0.00-0.76%
22.94 10th Cousin 6 2 0.11% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.10-0.12% 0.10-0.13% 0.09-0.14%
23.0 9th Cousin 2x Removed 1 0.71% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.71-0.71% 0.71-0.71% 0.71-0.71%
23.93 9th Cousin 3x Removed 7 1 0.35% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.35-0.35% 0.35-0.35% 0.35-0.35%
23.94 10th Cousin 1x Removed 6 13 0.17% 4.12% 0.00 0.06 0.01-0.32% 0.00-0.37% 0.00-0.49%
24.0 10th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.43% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.43-0.43% 0.43-0.43% 0.43-0.43%
24.5 Half 10th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.24% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.24-0.24% 0.24-0.24% 0.24-0.24%
24.94 10th Cousin 2x Removed 6 1 0.16% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16%
24.94 11th Cousin 6 1 0.10% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.10-0.10% 0.10-0.10% 0.10-0.10%
25.94 11th Cousin 1x Removed 6 5 0.21% 18.18% 0.00 0.06 0.04 0.10-0.31% 0.07-0.34% 0.00-0.43%
26.0 11th Cousin 1x Removed 1 0.16% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16% 0.16-0.16%
27.0 11th Cousin 2x Removed 2 0.24% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.23-0.25% 0.23-0.25% 0.22-0.26%
27.94 12th Cousin 1x Removed 6 1 0.13% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13% 0.13-0.13%
28.0 11th Cousin 3x Removed 1 0.20% 0.00% 0.00 0.00 0.20-0.20% 0.20-0.20% 0.20-0.20%
Total 2893
Last Updated: Tuesday, 18-Jan-22 13:22:07 GMT (Now)